Spent Coffee Grounds
SCG contain polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, lipids, aliphatic acids,amino acids, proteins, alkaloids (e.g. caffeine, trigonelline) and phenolics,minerals, lignin, melanidines and volatile compounds. Some chemicalcompounds present in SCG, such as caffeine, tannins andchlorogenic acid create ecotoxicological concerns and limit the vastrange of SCG upcycling applications
Biochar can be used as an energy source, adsorbent, soil modifier with application to carbon capture. It is known to reduce nitrogen loss from the ground and improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil, soil health and plant growth in general.
Produced bio-oil is a complex mixture of organic compounds, containing, carboxylic acids, esters, ketones, phenols and aromatics